Transducer play an important role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process needs to be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to a different.
This is a device which converts one form of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical energy is changed into an electric energy.
Varieties of transducer:
There are two types of transducers, they are: Active transducers and Passive transducers
Active transducers: Torque Transducer is actually a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electrical energy on its own. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and more are the most effective types of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is actually a device which converts the given non-electricity into electrical energy by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer would be the examples for your Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect can be found in some materials (like quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is applied towards the structure, it generates an electrical charge and, when an electrical field is applied, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” is derived from the Greek word for pressure.
A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or vice versa. Basically any kind of piezo mechanism could be called a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to drive voltage changes and therefore are often used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are utilized in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The advantage of a piezo speaker more than a magnetically driven speaker is based on the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness from the piezo ceramic plates that are utilized to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging can also be based on piezoelectrics. In cases like this, the Micro Load Cell are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly raises the amplitude while lowering the input power at the same time, i.e. the program is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:
In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are usually known as a piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is typically utilized to generate forces or position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are often operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors:
Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors that are very widely used for pressure sensing applications. They may be sometimes used along with piezo actuators to supply position feedback or force feedback, as an example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive implies that the resistance changes with the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors tend not to generate a charge (energy) plus they cannot convert mechanical in electrical power and the other way around. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a great selection for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be purchased when cutting edge performance is required.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:
If operated under the right conditions, the latest generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators can work for 10’s of huge amounts of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:
Because of the fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a good option for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is required to give you the controller the proper information about how to counteract the mechanical vibration by offering the correct amplitude and phase output for the piezo actuator. The sensor could even be a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to respond to strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:
Any sort of rapid actuation will cause vibrations in a work piece. In accordance with Newton’s laws, this means, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the better reactive forces it is going to cause. Just in case these forces are unwanted, an additional piezo mechanical system having a counter mass can be integrated and driven having a signal of the opposite phase. With a little fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel the other person out as well as the work piece are now able to move quickly but without exerting any force on oygoqj surrounding structures. This trick is frequently used in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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